Individual children develop at different rates but they are several general principles that seem to be the same regardless of developmental domain. First, human development is predictable. Second, children develop at different rates. Third, development is often marked by periods of rapid growth and periods of slower growth. In addition, both heredity and environmental factors make important contributions to development.
Like Piaget, Vygotsky argued that cognitive development results from an interaction between heredity and environment. Both authors have had an enormous impact on developmental psychology and teachers around the world use their methods in the classroom. Piaget has defined four stages: sensorimotor (birth to 2 years), pre-operational (2-7 years), concrete operational (7-11years), formal operational (11 years to adult). But Vygotsky emphasized the importance of society and culture in the development of cognitive processes like problem solving, self-regulation, and memory.
Teachers apply Vygotsky’s theory everyday by encouraging the students to talk themselves through difficult tasks and by providing tools that students can use to make difficult task easier. We should always give sufficient support to enable students to perform a task without feeling frustrated and we should always praise them even if they were not able to give the correct procedures of an experiment. Without a doubt, most of the teachers in the kindergartens use Vygotsky’s theory which consists in equipping the classroom with household items (dress-up clothes, cooking utensils, toy telephones, etc.). It gives young children time to practice adult roles and behaviors through play.
Both Piaget and Vygotsky offer educators good suggestions on how to teach effectively in a classroom.