According to Heather Coffey, "Critical literacy is the ability to read texts in an active, reflective manner in order to better understand power, inequality, and injustice in human relationships. For the purposes of critical literacy, text is defined as a “vehicle through which individuals communicate with one another using the codes and conventions of society."
Accordingly, songs, novels, conversations, pictures, movies, etc. are all considered texts.
Nearly sixteen months after the end of the Civil War, Section 3 of an Act of Congress entitled "An Act to increase and fix the Military Peace Establishment of the United States" authorized the formation of two regiments of cavalry composed of "colored" men.
For over two decades, the 9th and 10th Cavalry Regiments conducted campaigns against American Indian tribes on a Western Frontier that extended from Montana in the Northwest to Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona in the Southwest.
"The 1983 song, Buffalo Soldier is another human rights and social justice song by Bob Marley that was inspired by actual events.
Bob Marley's song, Buffalo Soldier pays tribute to the bravery and sacrifice of these heroic soldiers but is also critical of the American government's policies and practices with respect to slavery, Manifest Destiny and the genocide of Native Americans.
He sings, "...There was a Buffalo Soldier In the heart of America Stolen from Africa, brought to America Fighting on arrival, fighting for survival..."
Sadly, Bob Marley's life was cut short by cancer and he died on
As he said, "...Music gonna teach dem a lesson..."